Immune checkpoint molecules play an important role in T cell functionality after TCR/MHC signalling. Blockade of two B7/CD28 family checkpoint molecules, CTLA-4 and PD-1, have already demonstrated excellent efficacy in increasing T cell responses to a variety of tumours. Identification of novel target and new checkpoint blockade remains a key element in Drug Discovery (See “Drug discovery: Immunotherapy checkpoint research for new Cancer treatments“). In this post, let’s take a look at the “Quantibody® Human Immune Checkpoint Molecule Array 1” for the detection of 10 Human Immune Checkpoint biomarkers.
Cell-Based ELISA tests now enable precise measurement of the phosphorylation status or expression profiles of target proteins (biomarkers) in whole cells. In this post, a review of high performing cell-based assays is made.
In living organisms, ExtraCellular Matrix (ECM) builds up a complex and dynamic network of molecules, playing a major role in structural support, adhesion, movement and cellular regulation. Major components of the ECM (Collagen, Proteoglycans, Elastin, Hyaluronan) are key elements studied in the Pharmaceutical and Cosmetology fields due to their strong involvement in tissue regeneration, skin repair, wound healing, ageing diseases, surgery, inflammation, and also tumour development.
Boost your ECM studies with these 5 kits!
To help you in monitoring this component, let’s take a look at five robust and easy-to-use, in vitro assays, with colorimetric read-outs for easier daily use in your research.
Hyaluronic acid (also called HA or Hyaluronan) is a glycosaminoglycan with elevated viscosity, enabling tissues (eye, skin, joint and synovial fluid…) to resist to physical and mechanical constraints (torsion, flexion…). Over time, when HA production declines, tissues progressively lose these tensile properties, leading to wrinkles and fold, weak re-epithelisation and age-related troubles. But HA is also involved in many other chronic and cancer-related diseases. In this post, we’ll review one of the most popular HA quantification assays (ELISA test), known to be highly sensitive and robust, appreciated by researchers involved in cosmetology and drug discovery. [Read more…]
In a previous post, I introduced several biomarker arrays & assays, companion tools for biomarker discovery, monitoring and quantification. Today, I will focus more specifically on high density proteomics microarrays. This post aims at helping you understand what services are available in this domain and how they could fit within your project.
Indeed, tebu-bio has just been appointed by RayBiotech as one of the 3 companies worldwide to perform contract research on their recently developed higher density proteomics tools. A good opportunity to talk about this! [Read more…]
Having access to highly reproducible and fully validated ELISA tests is crucial in today’s Life Science research. Although the Sandwich ELISA format is the most commonly used, other immunoassay formats are also available to allow for a complete tool box, from phosphorylation studies to transcription factor activity assays.
In this post, I’ll be taking a look at the 6 formats available. [Read more…]
A single-domain antibody (sdAb, also called Nanobody) is an antibody fragment consisting of a single monomeric variable antibody domain. Like a whole antibody, it is able to bind selectively to a specific antigen. With a molecular weight of only 12–15 kDA, single-domain antibodies are much smaller than common antibodies (150–160 kDa). They have been shown to be just as specific as a regular antibody and in some cases more robust. They are being researched for multiple pharmaceutical applications in in vivo imaging and targeted therapy. eg. the fusion of a fluorescent protein to a single-domain antibody can be used to trace targets in different compartments of living cells. They can therefore increase the possibilities of live cell microscopy and will enable novel functional studies. [Read more…]
In a previous post dedicated to Quantitative arrays (Quantibody), I introduced our L-Series aimed at a broad one shot profiling of up to 1000 markers at once. This relative quantitation technology allows you to perform a first screen of your samples of interest versus a control, before you go on to targeted profiling using either pathway specific arrays, or a custom array including the targets of interest identified with the initial L-series screen. [Read more…]
On your journey to Biomarker profiling, you will reach the point where you need to quantify the proteins of interest identified along the way (eg. validation of semi-quantitative array results; biomarker discovery with an initial hunch on which pathway is involved).
At this stage, you will have narrowed down the number of targets you want to look at. However, the use of ELISAs is likely to be still too costly, too time consuming, and may require too much sample volume. [Read more…]